诸城| 丽水| 呼玛| 陵水| 岳阳市| 古冶| 富县| 和县| 米脂| 泽普| 交口| 宁乡| 达州| 夏河| 龙胜| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 都安| 扎囊| 获嘉| 宿州| 禹城| 三亚| 邵阳市| 重庆| 北仑| 张家口| 高港| 耿马| 清镇| 额尔古纳| 常熟| 张湾镇| 南昌县| 兴国| 盐都| 宁安| 桂平| 漾濞| 望江| 灵山| 东沙岛| 灌云| 栖霞| 兴隆| 高县| 阿瓦提| 茂名| 房县| 青神| 海口| 富裕| 永泰| 博罗| 贵阳| 青川| 沿河| 大石桥| 陵水| 闽侯| 慈利| 平阳| 奉贤| 英德| 茶陵| 丰台| 明水| 南京| 突泉| 温宿| 孝昌| 祁连| 宁阳| 梁山| 阜城| 西充| 弓长岭| 城口| 扎囊| 原平| 成武| 朝阳市| 资兴| 宣化区| 抚顺市| 三亚| 济南| 浦东新区| 大冶| 孝义| 乐都| 息烽| 镇江| 衡东| 达州| 鄂温克族自治旗| 龙岩| 定陶| 钦州| 元谋| 永和| 崇明| 卢氏| 图们| 五指山| 凤庆| 富宁| 户县| 滴道| 枣阳| 凭祥| 东海| 南昌市| 西青| 东阿| 藁城| 林西| 芦山| 东山| 峨眉山| 环县| 嘉善| 资源| 扶绥| 任丘| 崇礼| 农安| 泽普| 台中市| 巴中| 连城| 深泽| 西安| 湖口| 即墨| 光泽| 阿图什| 甘南| 江陵| 平塘| 阿勒泰| 南雄| 五寨| 商河| 山东| 铜陵市| 朝天| 伊金霍洛旗| 福清| 望谟| 红原| 西沙岛| 化州| 江苏| 城步| 宜昌| 古田| 铁力| 潼南| 黑龙江| 灞桥| 来凤| 太白| 奉贤| 霸州| 安阳| 怀远| 阿克苏| 阜宁| 张掖| 辉县| 汾阳| 寿宁| 安多| 勐腊| 西平| 沈阳| 夷陵| 婺源| 湘乡| 金湾| 双阳| 且末| 鄂尔多斯| 常德| 汕头| 云县| 宜州| 浮梁| 岱岳| 永春| 徐州| 商水| 剑川| 措勤| 蒙山| 双江| 郾城| 宜阳| 彬县| 湖口| 大兴| 磴口| 义县| 金湖| 贞丰| 杭州| 通化市| 七台河| 北京| 镇原| 津南| 栾川| 登封| 潮安| 阳城| 清水| 临安| 新晃| 剑川| 沛县| 宜昌| 博爱| 东台| 新邵| 泾阳| 大田| 红岗| 岱山| 康保| 深州| 渝北| 突泉| 双柏| 西固| 清徐| 乌拉特中旗| 大方| 西丰| 惠山| 若尔盖| 精河| 勐腊| 武胜| 舒兰| 滨海| 赤水| 宕昌| 元坝| 修武| 沿滩| 华池| 舞阳| 旬阳| 汝阳| 五莲| 宜城| 通州| 长垣| 会同| 崇阳| 五莲| 泸西| 大洼|

2012-2013年中国VC/PE行业发展与趋势调研报告

2019-09-18 07:23 来源:中新网江苏

  2012-2013年中国VC/PE行业发展与趋势调研报告

  Aviewof51TalksBeijingoffice.[]InFebruary,51TalkheldapressconferenceinBeijinganddecidedtousethe"51Talk"brandexclusivelytorepresentitsK-12onlineEnglisheducationofferings,,therevenueforthecompanysK-12businessaccountedforalmost80percentofthetotal,andtheCEOexpectedthefiguretoexceed85percentthisyear."FromanEnglishtrainingprovidertargetedatadultuserstoanonlineeducationalcompanythatfocusesmoreonK-12business,,",51TalkwasofficiallylistedontheNewYorkStockExchangeonJune10,ingpublic,Huangalsosaidhewasconfidentin51Talksfuturegrowth."ThegrossmarginofPhilippineteacherscanreach65percent,whilethefigureisbetween30and40percentforforeignteachersinNorthAmerica,"Huangsaid."Andthehighcostperformanceofthecoursesisappealingtomanyfamilies,especiallyforthosemiddle-incomegroupsatChinesesmallercities."[Photo/VCG]TheWhiteHouseonTuesdayissuedastatementannouncingthatitwastakingsteps"toprotectdomestictechnologyandintellectualproperty"fromwhatitcalledChinas"discriminatoryandburdensometradepractices".Thestepsincludea25percenttariffon$50billionworthofChinesegoodscontaining"industrialsignificanttechnology"–withalisttobereleasedbyJune15–alongwiththeimplemenetaryStevenMnuchindeclaredtheloomingtradewarwithChinahadbeenputonhold,andaheadofthearrivalofUSCommesMinistryofCommercerespondedbysayingitwassurprisedbythemovewhichwascontrarytotheconsensusreachedinWashingtonearlierthismonth,butsaiditwaswithinChinascommonpgtonthatitwouldbeinboththeirintereststoavoidatradewar,,notablyastheWhiteHousestatementmakesclearaswellashavingabeeinitsbonnetaboutthetradedeficitwithChina,theTrumpadministrationnowhasanotheraboutChinasMadeinChina2025isablueprintformovingChinasindustryhigherupthevaluechain,andthishaspromptedtheTrumpadministrationtotryanddefendtheUShigh-techadvantagesbyaccusingChinaofforcedtechnologytransfersandintellectualpropertytheft,andusingthethreatofthetariffsandrestrictionstocoerceChinatoenhanceUScompaniesaccesstotheChinesemarketto"expandexports".ButasChineseAmbassadortotheWorldTradeOrganizationZhangXiangchensaidonMondayataWTOmeeting,theOfficeoftheUnitedStatesTradeRepresentativehasfailedtoproduce“asinglepieceofevidence”tosupportitsclaimsandthereisnothinginitsregul,onomics,China’spaymentoflicensingfeesandroyaltiesfortheuseofforeigntechnologiesreachedalmost$30billionin2017,icalleadership,achangeofperspectivewouldallowittoseethatcooperatinginhigh-techwouldmakethecakebiggerforboth.

ArtistsfromKyrgyzstanstageaperformanceatadanceshowheldduringanSCOmembersartfestivalinBeijingonJune1.[Photo/Xinhua]Womensgreaterinvolvementininnovationandentrepreneurshipcanhelpboostsustainabledevelopmentandreducedirepoverty,accordingtotheoutcomedocumentofthefirstShanghaiCooperationOrganizationForumonWomen,,tobepresentedtotheSCOSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,saidtheforumparticipantsbelievedwomenshouldhavebetteraccesstoqualityeducationandproductiveresources,,heldonMay17,hadthethemeof"poolingthestrengthofwomenforcommondevelopment"andattractedmorethan200participants,"povertyreduction,jobcreation,inclusiveeconomicgrowthandsustainabledevelopment".Italsonotedwomensimportanceinenvironmentalconservation,andcalledforSCOcountriestoraisewomensvoicesineco-governanceandsexchangesandcooperationwithintheSCOframework,diversifymeansofcooperationandenhancewomensabilitytoparticipateinlocalandglobalsocioeconomicdevelopment,,vice-presidentoftheAll-ChinaWomensFederation,saidwomenareagreatforcewhosegenderdividendisfarfrombeingfullyrealized."Weneedtodoourbesttocleartheobstaclesthatsuppresswomenspotential,"shesaid."Weneedtosupporttheirinnovationanddevelopment,andliberatetheirproductivitysoastohelpthemmaketheircontributionsineveryfieldandfacilitatedevelopmentintheircountries."Womenaccountfor43percentofChinasworkforce,thefederationsaid,while55pe53percentofpostgraduatestudents,,($)inventurecapitalloanshavebeengrantedtowomensince2009.PresidentXiJinpingdeliversakeynotespeechatthetheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,EastChinasShandongprovince,onJune10,2018.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]TofurthercarryforwardtheShanghaiSpiritPresidentXicalledforfurthercarryingforwardtheShanghaiSpirittosurmountdifficulties,defuserisksandmeetchallenges."WeshouldrejecttheColdWarmentalityandconfrontationbetweenblocksandopposethepracticesofseekingabsolutesecurityofoneselfattheexpenseofthesecurityofothercountries,soastoachievesecurityofall,"hegemonyandpowerpoliticsstillpersistintheworld,thegr,,tradeprotectionismandbacklashagainstglobalizationaretakingnewforms,hesaidthepursuitofcooperationformutualbenefitrepresentsasurgingtrendinthisglobalvillagewherecountriesawillsetupa30-billion-yuan($)equivalentspeciallendingfacilitywithintheframeworkoftheInter-BankConsortiumoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganization.

  ARussianbuyersignsareceiptfortheitemheboughtfromChinesee-commerceplatformJD.[Photo/Xinhua]Thenewlysetupbusiness-to-business(B2B)cross-bordere-commerceplatformwillfurthertrustandmutualcooperationandspurtradeandinvestmenttiesbetweenmembersoftheShanghaiCooperationOrganization,,theB2Bplatformwillutilizeblockchaintechnology,internetofthings,cloudcomputingandbigdatatoprovidesupportforhigh-qualityproductsinagriculture,energy,,moreeffortsareneededtoboostthecross-borderpaymentandsettlementplatformsandthecreditandfactoringsystemsalongwithvestmentandfinancingneedsofenterprises,,relevantstandardsrelatedtosupplychain,foods,PremierLiKeqiangproposedtheestablishm,thedevelopmentplanofthefirstdemonstrationzoneinQingdao,whichwillalsohostthe18thSCOSummit,,logisticsparksandcross-bordere-commercetr($953billion)insaleslastyear,accordingtoiiMediaResearch,,aquarteroftheChinesepopulation,ormorethanhalfofChinasdigitalbuyers,willbeshoppingforcross-borderproducts,eitherdirectlyonforeign-basedwebsitesorthroughthirdparties."Chinascross-bordere-commerceisdevelopingrapidly,andthelogisticsandfreighttransportsystemwithintheSCOcountrieshasrelativelyimproved,whichinturnwillboosteconomicandtradecooperationbetweenChinaandSCOcountries,"saidLuZhenwang,furtherbreaktradebarriers,admittingtherearestillchallenges,forinstance,duetodifferentpaymentmethodsandsettlementfinancingamongthemembers.AstevedoreworksatQingdaoportinShandongprovince,July1,2015.[Photo/IC]BRUSSELS-ChinaandtheEuropeanUnion(EU)havebothvoicedtheirfirmobjectionstoUStariffsonsteelandaluminum,andareexpe,USPresidentDonaldTrumpannouncedinMarc,,theEUinitiatedadisputewiththeUnitedStatesattheWTO,andannouncedWednesdaythestartofapplyingrebalancingdutiesonUSproductsinJuly,aspartofthe"three-prongedresponse."InlateApril,theEUhadsoughttojointheconsultationsattheWTOrequestedbyChinawiththeUnitedStatesontheUStariffs,,EuropeanCommissionPresidentJean-ClaudeJunckerlambastedUStariffs,sayingthat"thisisprotectionism,pureandsimple.""WeregretthattheUnitedStatesleftuswithnootheroptionthantosafeguardEUinterests,",ChinasForeignMinistryspokespersonHuaChunyingsaidearlierthatunilateralismandtradeprotection,aspartofitsopening-upeffortsssecondla,atradeexpertattheIfoinstituteinMunich,saidwhileeconomicdamagefromthesteelandaluminiumtariffswouldbe"limited"atfirst,theywouldbe"onlythebeginningofarowoffurtherUSmeasures."FelbermayersuggestedtheEUmaintainaunitedfrontinoppositiontothemeasurestogetherwithotherinternationalpartnerslikeChina,,topdiplomatsofthetwosidesalreadypledgedtodeepenstrategiccooperationandsafeguardmultilateralism,asChineseStateCouncilorandForeignMinisterWangYiandEUforeignpolicychiefFedericaMogherinico-chairedt,Wangsaid,forherpart,saidthattheEUiswillingtoworkwithChinatoupholdthemultilateralsystemwiththeUnitedNationsatthecore,sprotectionismcreatesmorechaosanduncertaintiesworldwide,morere,ChinaandEU,whichsharesubstantiallythesameviewonpreservingmultilateralism,globalizationandfreetrade,,,CanadafiledachallengeattheWTOagainsttheUStari,targetingtheAmericansteel,anges,safeguardingmultilateralismandfreetradeisnotonlyatstakefortheEUandChina,butalsofortherestoftheworld,saidJuncker.

  [Photo/VCG]AWhiteHousestatementonTuesdayabouttariffsonChinasexportsclearlyrunsagainsttheconsensusreachedrecentlybythetwocountriesinWashington,on$50billionworthofChinesegoods,anditsaiditwilltargetthetariffsoncutting-edgetechnologies,"tacticalstatement"issuedbytheWhiteHouseissurprisingbutnotbeyondexpectation,theunn,Chinahastheconfidence,abilityandexperiencetosafeguardtheinterestsoftheChinesepeopleandthecountryscoreinterests,,inlinewiththerecentbilateraljointstatement,thespokespersonadded.[]Thereformandopening-uppolicyimplementedoverthepastfourdecadeshasbeenhighlyproductiveforChinainparticular,,ledbyDengXiaoping,soughttoachievenationalrejuvenationandbuildapeaceful,,ledbytheCommunistPartyofChina,unleashedeconomicreform,,"socialismwithChinesecharacteristics"in1978torejuvenatethecgninvestmentandentrepreneurspushedChinaforwardandconsolidateditseconomic,political,,,800millionpeoplehavebeenliftedoutofpovertysofar,accordingtotheWorldBank,andChinahasbecometheworld,PremieroftheChineseStateCouncil,saidinthefirstsessionofthe13thNationalPeoplesCongressthatmorethan68millionpeoplehadbeenliftedoutofpovertyinthepastfiveyears—indicatingthatonaverage,37,,ChinabecamethetopcontributortotheglobalGDPgrowth,anditseconomicgrow,marketforceshadmobilizedprivateenterprisesandindivi,industrializationandstructural,Chinaisalsoleadingtheworldinhigh-speedrail,e-commerce,"goglobal"and"bringingin"approach,the,amegainfrastructureprojectproposedbyChinesePresidentXiJinpinginSeptember2013,Chinainvestedmorethan$,,,Chinasshareintheglobaleconomyhasreachedroughly15percentanditscontributiontoglobalgrowthexceeded30percent,,Chineseenterprisesinvestedin7,,stotalimportandexportofgoodsreached$,,4,986for,46millionpeopletraveledabroadand48millionforeignerstraveledtoChinain2008;whereasonly200,,Chinesediplom,from18to172countries,sisolationandchangedtheworld,rningabouttheircultureandhistory,andhavealsoguidedothernationstolearnaboutChina,,spragmaticapproachtoreformwasconductivetoa"transitionwithouttears".Theroutethecountryhastakeninthepast40years,,currently,,economy,diplomatictiesandfriendlyrelationswiththeoutsideworld,

[Photo/VCG]ChinawillevaluatetheinfluenceandreservetherighttotakecorrespondingmeasuresaftertheUnitedStatesannouncedrestrictionmeasuresonChineseinvestmentsandexportstoChina,theMinistryofCommercesaidThursday."WehavenotedthesemeasuresthattheUSplanstointroduce,"theministrysspokesmanGaoFengsaidinremarksataregularnewsconference."ChinabelievesthatthesemeasuresdonotconformtothebasicprinciplesandspiritoftheWorldTradeOrganization."TheministryscommentscameafterWhiteHousesaidTuesdaythatitwouldimplementspecificinvestmentrestrictionsandtightenexportcontrolsforChinesepeopleandbusinesses"relatedtotheacquisitionofindustriallysignificanttechnology"ttotariffsandproposedinvestmentrestrictionsbyJune15andJune30respectively,itsaid.

  TheFreedomPartyofDutchanti-IslampoliticianGeertWilderswillholdacompetitionofcartoonsdepictingtheProphetMohammad,inDutc,Islamistgunmenkilled12peopleattheParisofficesoftheFrenchsecularistsatiricalnewspaperCharlieHebdo,,thepublicationinaDanishnewspaperofadozencart,,especiallyforIslamcritics,,winnerofasimilarcontestinGarland,Texas,inMay2015,hasbeenaskedtojudgetheDutchcontest,whichwillbeheldlaterthisyear.

  Apoliceofficerthrowsacaseofdrugsintoafurnaceduringapublicanti-drugcampaigninUrumqi,XinjiangUygurautonomousregion,/CHINANEWSSERVICEChinaofferstechnicaltrainingtoSCOmemberstostoptraffickersChinahaspledgedtoprovidemoretrainingandtechnicalsupporttomembernationsoftheShastoimprovetheircapabilitiesininvestigatingandfightingcrime,accordingtoWeiXiaojun,,hesaid,Chinawillalsoprovidetechnicalandequipmentsupportwhileworkingtofindalternativecropsorsourcesofincomefortheregion,akeyingredientinopiatessuchasmorphine,heroinandcodeine."Drugsleadtomanyviolentcrimes,includingmurderandkidnapping,whichseriouslythreatensregionalsecurityandsocialstability,"Weisaid."Wetakeazero-toleranceattitudetowarddrugs."Inrecentyears,narcoticsfromtheworldsthreemajordrug-producingareas-theGoldenTriangle,comprisingpartsofThailand,LaosandMyanmar;theGoldenCrescent,whichincludespartsofCentralandSouthAsia;andSouthAmerica-lmethamphetamine-alsoknownasice-foundinChinacomesfromtheGoldenTriangle,althoughauthoritiessaanebeforebeingtraffickedtoEuropeandtheUnitedStates,,policeacrossChinahavehandled860,000drug-relatedcases,,,,an,hesaid,whilecriminalscannowfindclientsonline,buychemicalsforthemanufactureofnarcotics,andplaceorderstohavedrugsdeliveredusinginternationallogisticsservices."Evenworse,illegaldrugmanufacturingandtraffickinghaveintertwinedwithtransnationalorganizedcrime,theillegalflowofcapital,corruptionandterrorism,posingaseriousthreattoregionalpeaceandstability,"thestrongdemandfordrugsaswellasenhancecooperationoneducationandpreventionmeasurestocurbtherisingnumberofaddicts.PeoplegathertowatchLaurenceBrahm[]“streeteconomics”moreimportantthantheory,IfoundlifeinTianjin’inese,–someti,,,,thentheprovincialpartysecretary,“householdresponsibilitysystem.”Thislittleexperiment,allowingonesmallgrouptherighttogrowtheirownriceandcabbage,,WanListoodattheheightofhispower,asChairmanoftheNationalPeople’,inoneofthosevastdrearyroomswithoverstuffedsofasanddustyredcurtains,hehadoneburningquestion:howtotransformChina’sdebt-riddenrustystate-ownedenterprisesintoglobalconglomeratesthatcouldcompetewithAmericancorporationsforinternationalmarketsFiveyearslaterIwouldbeonthegroundinAnhuiprovince,wherehisownreformsfirstbegan,workingonablueprintforthe“corporatization”ofChina’,whatthenseemedlikethefar-flungdreamofanoldrevol’searlyexperimentof“freemarket.”ButwhatdiditreallymeanAfewboldpeasantsbroughtvegetablesandpeanutsfoldedinroughcloth—,,“marketeconomy.”ThefreemarketwasonthefringesofChina’,,wheresomuchinthewayofresources—fromenergytofood—waswasted,Iwasbothshockedandgettingeducated!

  LuoJie/ChinaDailyTrumpsrecklessdecisionsandactionshavecreatedseriousproblemsfortherestoftheworldandsrespectdespiteitsexceptionaleconomicandmilitarymightThisquestiongainedevenmoreimportanceaftertheDonaldTrumpadministrationdecidedtoimposeadditionaltariffson$50billionworthofChineseimports(aswellasimportsfromothereconomies)sstatementonSundaysuggeststheconstructivediscussionswiththeUSnegotiatorscouldpreventafull-blowntradewar,althoughChinamadeitclearthenegotiateddealwillnotbeimplementediftheUSgoesaheadwithitsdecisiontoimposethetradesanctions,,becauseinrecenttimestheUShasbeentreatingitspromises,eventheinternationaltreatiesithassigned,,theUSfromtheinternationalcommunity,increasinglyselfishactionsareturningtheotherwisecivilizedworldintoa"Hobbesian"worldwhereelossofcredibilityhas,withinweeksofassumingthepresidency,hewithdrewfro,hehasimposedtariffsonimportsfromitstradepartnersandthreatenedtodothesameonmoreproductsfromothercountries,includingChina,forcingmanyofthesecountries,especiallyChina,totakecoun"makingAmericagreatagain",asiftheUScooperationwiththeothercountriesbasedonthoseagreementshassappedthesolesuperpowereirinterest,,theUSadministrationhasturnedablindeyeanddeafeartotheconcernsoftheothersignator,,itdidno,FranceandGermany,letaloneChinaandRussia,,TrumpaccusedIranoffailingtoabidebythedealbeforemakingtheirresponsibledecisionbasedonIsraeliintelligencewhileignoringtheInternationalAtomicEnergyAgencysassertionthatTeedchemicalweaponsagainstitsownpeoplebecauseitwouldbestupidofBasharal-AssadtoprovoketheUSanditsWesterinabilitytohelpIraqrealizereligiousandethnicreconciliationthatgaverisetorampanttercesfromthatcountryapologizedforthehorrortheUShascaus,too,withdrawalfromtheIrannucleardeal,inwhichotherMiddleEastcountriescouldgetinvolved,,ter,whichisbecomingincreasinglylikelygivenTrumpsrecklessactions,theUSwillnotonlylosethelittlerespectabilityandcredibil

  USPresidentDonaldTrumpwalkswiththeDPRKstopleaderKimJong-unattheCapellahotelonSentosaislandinSingaporeonTuesday.[Photo/Agencies]ThenewTrump-Kimjointagreementcouldproveapromising“memorandumofunderstanding.”However,it’snotjustaboutdenuclearization;:Followinghoursofclosed-doortalksinCapellahotelinSingapore,USPresidentDonaldTrumpandDPRKleaderKimJong-unsignedajointfour-pointagreement:toestablishnewUS-DPRKrelations,astablepeaceregime,aDPRKcommitmenttoachievethe“completedenuclearization”oftheKoreanPeninsula,,theagreementdoesnotincludeafirm“verifiable”and“irreversible”,theTrump-Kimagreementisnotafinaldeal,,itshouldbeseenasapromising“memorandumofunderstanding.”,,ag,arealpeaceandstabilityrequiresfarmorethanafour-pointagreemen,DPRKiscus,Pyongyanghaslong–andjustifiably––afterWashingtonhadlostitsnuclearmonopolytotheSovietUnion-theearlysetbacksintheKoreanWarpromptedGeneralMacArthurtoconsiderusingnuclearweaponsagainsttheChineseandNorthKoreans–touseradioactivefalloutzonestodisruptChinesesupplychains-until,,between1950and1953,theUSsubjectedDPRKtoadevastatingbombingcampaign,whichdestroyed85percentofthecountry’sbuildingsandcausedonemillioncivilianstodie;morethantheentireciviliandeathsinWorldWarIIbombingofGermanyandJapan,,WashingtonhasseenDPRKasa“roguestate.”EvenwiththeSovietUnion,Washingtonsupported“peacefulcoexistence,”butwithDPRK,onlya“temporaryceasefire.”That’,Trump’sstatementinthepressconferencethattheUShadagreedtostopplaying“wargames”withPyongyang,referringtothejointmilitaryexerciseswithSouthKorea,“bringoursoldiersbackhome”fromDPRK,headmitteditwas“notpartoftheequationrightnow.”Typically,thedecisiontoceasethej’,hehadnearlyagreedtotheG7Summitcommuniqué,,dealsareseldomfixedentities,,formerUSpresidentJimmyCarterwhohasnegotiatedwithseveralDPRKleaders,notedthat,foralongtime,Pyongyanghassoughta“peacetreatytoreplacethe[1953]ceasefire.”Inhisexperience,inedIrannucleardeal,thatised2013NewYear’saddress,KimJong-unadvocated"aradicalturninthebuildingofaneconomicgiantonthestrengthofscienceandtechnologybyfanningtheflamesoftheindustrialrevolutioninthenewcentury.”Theseeconomiceffortsshould“bemanifestedinthepeople’sstandardofliving.”,PresidentObamaoptedforaPentagon-led“pivottoAsia”’soutlineforaPentagon-led“pivottoAsia,”,theobjectivewastoseizetheopportunitytocooperatewiththethen-presidentofSouthKorea,ParkGeun-hye,,insteadofrapprochement,WashingtonpushedforaTerminalHighAltitudeAreaDefense(THAAD),THAADwouldkilltwobirdswithonestone:itwouldsubduePyongyangand,ifneeded,,however,fellapartinearly2017,,,Park’sconservativeswereabletopostponetherepealoftheOperationControlagreement(OPCON),/USCombinedForcesCommand(CFC)isto“deterhostileactsofexternalaggression”SouthKoreabya“combinedmilitaryeffort.”TheCFCiscommandedbyaUSGeneralandithasoperationalcontrol(OPCON)overmorethan600,,USintere,atrueandlastingpeaceintheKorrtthetalks,thenullificationofimpeachmenteffortsagainsttheWhiteHouse,minimallossesfortheincumbentsintheUSmid-termelections,anotherTrumpelectiontriumphin2020–and’savery,,TrumpandKimtookthefirst,,ChinaandAmericaInstitute(US),theShanghaiInstitutesforInternationalStudies(China)andtheEUCenter(Singapore).[Photo/VCG]ChinawillevaluatetheinfluenceandreservetherighttotakecorrespondingmeasuresaftertheUnitedStatesannouncedrestrictionmeasuresonChineseinvestmentsandexportstoChina,theMinistryofCommercesaidThursday."WehavenotedthesemeasuresthattheUSplanstointroduce,"theministrysspokesmanGaoFengsaidinremarksataregularnewsconference."ChinabelievesthatthesemeasuresdonotconformtothebasicprinciplesandspiritoftheWorldTradeOrganization."TheministryscommentscameafterWhiteHousesaidTuesdaythatitwouldimplementspecificinvestmentrestrictionsandtightenexportcontrolsforChinesepeopleandbusinesses"relatedtotheacquisitionofindustriallysignificanttechnology"ttotariffsandproposedinvestmentrestrictionsbyJune15andJune30respectively,itsaid.

  Studentsboarda"gaokaotrain"atDayangshutownshipinNorthChinasInnerMongoliaAutonomousRegion,June5,2017.[Photo/VCG],,thenationalcollegeentranceexamination,,,boardedthetrainonTuesdaywithherclassmates."Thetripmaybethelasttimewearealltogether,"saidLu,"gaokaotrain"departonitstwo-and-half-hourjourneymanytimesasgenerationsofherschoolmatesleftfortheexamination,sInnerMongoliaAutonom,studen,the"gaokaotrain"departsonJune5,($2).Beforethecharteredtrainservicebeganin2003,,"gaokaotrain"asshewasworriedthatthebumpyjourneywouldinevitablyaffectherperformance.","saidMeng,,thetrainhascarriedmorethan30,,,,includingstudentsandparents,hasdeclinedfrom1,300atitspeakto500thisyear,saidChenRuqing,,thericketyoldgreentrainhasbeenreplacedwithaneweronewithairconditioning,andphotographeronboardwillpreservethememoriesofwhatisaveryspecialdayinthelivesofthoseaboard."Althoughwelosemoneybyoperatingthetrain,wewillkeeprunningaslongasitisneeded,"Chensaid.

  ,Minnesota,US,June12,2018,inthisimageobtainedfromsocialmedia.[Photo/Agencies]MINNEAPOLIS—Araccoonthatbec,Minneapolis,US,,accordingtoWildlifeManagementServices,"Itseatingnormally,"saidChristinaValdivia,thecompanysgeneralmanager,sadventurescausedastironsocialmediaasitscaledthetowerTuesday,withmanyTwitterusersvoicingconcernforitssafetyorjokingaboutthedramaasits,,afemale,wasreleasedlaterinthedayandscamperedin,whichbrokethestoryandcloselyfollowedtheraccoonsclimbfromitsheadquarterslessthanablockaway,brandedtheanimal#mprraccoon.

  Thetopscorerin2015nationalcollegeentranceexaminChongqing.[Photo/IC]Thecountrystopeducationauthorityhasissuedanoticeonbanningpublicityoftopscorersingaokao,ornationalcollegeentranceexamination,bsite,sthefirsttimethattheministryhastakwhodosowillbedealtwithseriously,ChenBaosheng,ministerofeducation,saidatarecenttop-le,,,reinforcedtheideaofexam-orientededucationandworsenedthesocialenvironmentforeducationreformanddevelopment,saidWangKai,reefromtheshacklesofmoneyandfameandreturnittoitsoriginalgoalofnurturingstudents.WatchtoseehowthispressattacheoftheembassyofPakistanreflectsonPresidentXiJinping,PressAttacheoftheEmbassyofPakistanWatchtoseehowthisRussianreporterfromSPUTNIKNewsAgencyandRadioBeijingbureaureflectsonPresidentXiJinping,SPUTNIKNewsAgencyandRadioBeijingbureauchiefWatchthisreporterfromRussiaandChinaMagazinesharehisthoughtsontheShanghaiCooperationOrganization,Chinasref,RussiaandChinaMagazineReporterfromRussiaTodaytalkstoChinaDailyaboutQingdao,ShanghaiCooperationOrganizationandChina,RussiaToday

  

  2012-2013年中国VC/PE行业发展与趋势调研报告

 
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054A型护卫舰(英文:Type 054A Frigates,北约代号:Jiangkai II Class Frigates,中文:江凯Ⅱ级护卫舰)是中国人民解放军海军最新型的护卫舰等级。首舰徐州号(530)于2019-09-18在广州黄埔造船厂下水,于2008年服役。因为本级舰是中国海军本世纪初新锐舰艇大量服役时期的代表作之一,加之其新颖的舰体设计,因此中国网络上将本级舰昵称为“新青年”。 本级舰身设计与054型护卫舰相仿,火力则比较054型护卫舰强劲许多,为中国人民解放军海军装备的第一种区域防空型护卫舰。其前级054型护卫舰是为了避免对中国海军造舰建军造成太大的空档,并提前验证舰体设计,作为后续本级舰设计改进的依据。 本级舰外形设计简洁洗练,防空/反舰/反潜配置均衡,堪称颇具水准的设计。就数量而言,本级舰将成为中国新一代舰队组成的骨干,其适航性与作战能力都优于过去中国海军主力的051型驱逐舰;服役以来,本级舰积极参与国际远航活动、索马里反海盗等,为中国海军累积了可观的远洋操作经验。

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    1发展沿革

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    2003年,广州黄埔造船厂与上海沪东造船厂各推出了一艘054型护卫舰,虽然其简洁的构型被外界誉 为“中华拉斐特级护卫舰”,但舰上仍配备以往的八联装海红旗-7防空导弹,略显落伍。随后网络上出现一种改良后的054实体模型照片,在设计与装备方面进行了诸多重大改良,大幅强化其防空战力,包括舰首改装垂直发射系统,防空雷达换成俄式顶板(Top-Plate ),并换上中国在2000年代开始实用化的730近防炮来取代AK-630机炮;因此,前两艘054型护卫舰只是一种过渡型舰,后续建造的将是如模型一般的新构型。

    沉寂数年后,2006年在网络上终于出现了一艘正在建造的新版054护卫舰照片,除了主炮型号之外几乎与模型完全相同(模型上似乎仍沿用旧有的100mm舰炮,但实舰则换成76mm舰炮),而这种改良型054便被赋予054A的代号,西方称之为“江凯-II级”(Jiangkai-II class)。显然地,一开始054的设计工作与海红旗-16防空导弹系统的发展为成套展开,只由于海红旗-16的发展时程跟不上舰体进度,为了避免对中国海军造舰/建军造成太大的空档,才先造了两艘装备现有海红旗-7的054来垫档,以提前验证舰体设计,作为后续舰设计改进的依据。

    2建造过程

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    与先前的054型护卫舰相同,广州黄埔造船厂与上海沪东造船厂继续以轮流交替的模式建造054A,舷号也是交错的。由于527、528这两个舷号已经分别被沪东、黄浦两厂在2004年下水的两艘江卫级Ⅱ型(053H3)导弹护卫舰占用,因此054A的舷号由529起跳。接续江凯-I级的顺序,沪东厂负责建造054A的第一( 舷号529)、第三号舰(舷号568),黄浦厂则建造第二(舷号530)、第四艘(舷号570),后续也以此类推。进度方面,黄浦厂承造的054A首舰(530)是最早开工的同级舰,于2006年九月30日率先下水,并于2019-09-18正式命名为徐州号;

    由沪东建造的054A二号舰(529)的开工在黄浦首舰之后,于2019-09-18下水(当天还有沪东建造的071型船坞登陆舰一号舰在同一个干坞一起下水),尔后命名为舟山号(原东海舰队有一艘江湖Ⅲ级(053H2)--537舟山号,在2019-09-18改名为沧州号)。由于这两个船厂都以干坞注水的方式让船只下水,没有传统船台下水时冲击力的顾虑,因此054A下水时的完成度都相当高,各项武器、电子天线都已经安装完毕。舟山号于2019-09-18率先举行命名仪式成军,徐州号则在2019-09-18服役,两舰都配署于东海舰队。在2019-09-18,黄浦厂的第二艘054A下水,舷号为570,在2007年10月左右正式命名为黄山号,随后在2019-09-18进入南海舰队服役;而沪东厂造的第二艘054A则在同年5月23日下水,2019-09-18命名为巢湖号并加入南海舰队服役(2019-09-18巢湖市由地级市降为县级市而丧失为导弹护卫舰命名的资格,原管辖区域被分别并入合肥、芜湖、马鞍山三市,巢湖号也在2019-09-18改名为衡阳号),至此第一批四艘054A全数成军。

    第二艘054A则在同年5月23日下水,2019-09-18命名为巢湖号并加入南海舰队服役(2019-09-18巢湖市由地级市降为县级市而丧失为导弹护卫舰命名的资格,原管辖区域被分别并入合肥、芜湖、马鞍山三市,巢湖号也在2019-09-18改名为衡阳号),至此第一批四艘054A全数成军。

    此后054A型护卫舰建造过程从未间断,2013年3月中旬,在沪东厂建造的054A第18号舰获得确认,该舰命名为三门峡号。至于054A预定的建造总数截至三门峡号仍未明确。

    3技术特点

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    舰体设计

    由于054A和前型054在大体设计上是一致的(见054型护卫舰)但054A增加了不少新装备,所以满载排水量比054增加一些,达4200吨左右。舰体更改方面,054的侧面折角线系从舰首开始直到舰尾,因此从舰首、上层结构到直升机甲板上部都是内收,而第一批四艘054A的折角线则于以提高,因此整个船舷从舰首到舰尾都是外飘,直到舰桥部位才开始向内收缩,如此可能会部分地增加雷达截面积以及增加上部重量,但也加大了舰首与舰尾的可用甲板面积(故其最大舷宽略有增加),尤其是直升机甲板面积因而增宽,对于直升机起降较为有利。从第五艘054A运城号(571)开始,舰首挡浪板部位改为折线向内收缩,似乎是为了降低雷达截面积与加强适航性,不过整体折线位置仍与前四艘054A相同。

    垂发设计

    在防空方面,054A最大的改良,就是以新的垂直发射防空导弹系统取代原本054使用的海红旗-7型。054A的垂直发射防空导弹是中国在2000年代开发的红旗-16中程防空导弹(HQ-16),解放军正式编号为H/AJK16。为了配合垂直发射器的安装,054A将054型原本舰桥前方一块高起的平台(即安装HHQ-7发射器的位置)取消,以扩大B炮位的甲板面积。054A的垂直发射系统一改以往俄系的“转轮式”与“冷发射”特征,而使用与西方惯用的“每管一发”方格状设计以及“热发射”,而每个垂直发射系统模组八管(2X4) 的设计也与美国MK-41、法国Sylver等西方主要垂直发射系统相同。

    054A舰首装有四组八联装垂直发射系统单元,每个垂直发射系统单元的配置方向系长边(4管)为纵、短边(2管)为横,的垂直发射系统配置为纵向4管,横向8管。红旗-16防空导弹具备很强的多目标攻击能力,一个火力发射单元可以同时跟踪8个目标,并对其中4个进行攻击。而它可以攻击的目标种类众多,从高空飞行的飞机到低空飞行的巡航导弹,甚至是飞机投掷的精确制导武器,红旗-16防空导弹都能够有效对抗。在很大程度上,红旗-16防空导弹还能够对抗敌方空中力量发动的“野鼬鼠”防空压制攻击。

    主炮设计

    主炮方面,054A并未继续沿用052B/C以及054的中国自制的H/PJ-87式单管100mm舰炮,而改采以一门中国国产的PJ26型单管76MM隐身舰炮,此炮堪称俄罗斯AK-176M型76mm舰炮的中国版。中国海军为了寻求一种新型中口径舰炮,以取代原有的旧式双联装57mm舰炮,早在1994年就决定自俄罗斯引进AK-176M以及所属RFCS LASKA射控系统的技术(同时连带采购少量原装A-176M舰炮,用于中国部分现役小型舰艇的换装,例如“红箭”级导弹快艇的五号舰) ;在2003年由郑州机电工程研究所(即郑州713研究所)完成国产化作业,成为中国海军新一代的制式中口径舰炮。

    船电设计

    054A的主桅杆顶端加装了一具中国国产化的顶板3D对空搜索雷达,取代原本054型安装于此位置的360型雷达,中国将此种国产化版本命名为海鹰S/C型(Sea Eagle S/C)雷达。顶板雷达已用于许多中国其他新一代舰艇如052B、051C、现代级导弹驱逐舰等等,堪称中国新一代舰队的准制式对空搜索雷达。相较于俄罗斯原版顶板,海鹰S/C似乎采用改进过的天线技术,外型比较简洁,省略了原装顶板顶端的一具小型条状天线,天线的机械结构也有所变更。054A的舰桥顶部装有一套中国国产化的俄罗斯MINERAL-ME射控雷达系统,取代了原本054所使用的344型射控雷达。能为舰上的鹰击-83反舰导弹提供目标标定以及中途资料更新。

    054A后方桅杆顶部仍维持拥有球型外罩的364型X波段短程对海/对空搜索追踪雷达,主桅杆前方的平台装置一座用来导引76mm舰炮的LR-66舰炮射控雷达,LR -66下方的甲板还装有一具GDG-775光电射控仪,整合了一具红外线热影像仪、一具CCD摄影机与一具激光测距仪,同样可用于导控76mm舰炮。直升机库上方装有一座仿自SNIT 240的卫星通讯天线,取代了054的两座战术卫星通讯天线。声纳方面,054A的配置与054相同,舰首装有307型主/被动声纳系统(位于舰首的球型护罩内),舰尾亦设一具206型拖曳阵列声纳,此外还有064型通信声纳以及723型本舰声纳环境监测设备。

    其他设计

    054A以本世纪初制式化的730型30mm近迫武器系统取代原本的054的PJ-13(AK-630)30mm速射炮,两座730型分别安装于烟囱的两侧。054A的电子战系统与054大致相同,但是两座干扰弹发射器改为726-4A构型,每个具有24个发射管(分为四层,比原726-4增加一层)。2012年5月中旬,日本公布一张054A护卫舰舟山号(529)操作无人直升机的监视照片,推测可能是奥地利Schiebel公司的Comcopter S-100无人直升机。有消息称中国在2010年向Schiebel公司购买了18架Comcopter S-100。S-100是一种能在小型舰艇上部署操作的轻型无人直升机,机体采用轻量、高强度的碳纤复合材料制造,机腹下方的主承载区能搭载约50kg,通常装置一座日/夜间光电侦搜系统,携带25kg承载时能滞空约6小时,并能以100节(185km/hr)的速率巡航。

    4基本数据

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    参考数据

    舰长 135米
    舷宽 16米
    吃水 4.5米
    排水量

    标准3600吨

    满载4200吨

    乘员 180人
    动力系统

    CODAD

    4×S.E.M.T.Pielstick 16PA6STC 柴油机/27000马力

    双轴CPP

    续航力 4000海里/18节
    航速 27节

    船电系统

    雷达

    1×382型3D E频对空搜索雷达
    1×364型(SR-64) X频2D对空/对海搜索雷达
    2×754型I频导航/直升机空管雷达
    4×MR-90火控雷达
    1×366型反舰导弹火控雷达
    1×H/LJP-349舰炮火控雷达

    对抗

    922-1型电子支援系统
    751型电子对抗系统
    2×726-4A 24联装干扰弹发射器

    声纳

    1×307型中频舰首主/被动声纳
    1×H/SJG-206拖曳阵列声纳

    舰载武装

    舰炮 1×PJ26型单管76MM隐身舰炮
    导弹

    4×八联装垂直发射系统(装填HHQ-16防空导弹与火箭助飞鱼雷)
    2×四联装鹰击-83反舰导弹发射器

    近防 2×7管30mm口径730型近程防御武器系统
    反潜 2×87式六管反潜火箭深弹发射装置
    舰载机 1架卡-28反潜直升机或直-9C反潜直升机

    5服役动态

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    护航亚丁湾

    2008年,鉴于索马里海盗活动日渐猖狂,联合国安全理事会于2019-09-18和10月20日分别通过第1816号和1838号决议案,允许外国军舰进入索马里海域追捕海盗,并可使用必要方法打击在国际水域活动的海盗。2019-09-18,中国第二批换防索马里海域护航编队出发,这其中就包括054A型护卫舰的黄山号,而054A型护卫舰自此就成为索马里护航编队的常客。054A适中的吨位、足够的装备以及柴油主机良好的油耗经济性,使之成为索马里护航任务的理想舰种。

    护航地中海

    中国作为联合国常任理事国,为了保障叙利亚化学武器销毁顺利进行,为叙利亚问题政治解决创造有利条件,落实联合国安理会第2118号决议和禁化武组织关于销毁叙化武各项决定,中国于2013年12月决定派中国人民解放军海军参与叙化武海运护航。

    联合国禁止化学武器组织2019-09-18宣布由挪威和丹麦的运输船和海军护卫舰把化学武器经地中海运至意大利某港口,中国和俄罗斯提供海运护航,最后再由美国海军用配有特殊设备的军舰运往国际海域销毁。

    054A型护卫舰盐城舰于当地时间2019-09-18凌晨2点从塞浦路斯利马索尔港启航,奔赴叙利亚预定集结点,与俄、丹、挪等国家舰艇组成护航编队。此前,盐城舰还派员赴丹挪联合编队指挥舰—丹麦“艾斯伯恩·斯奈尔”号作战支援舰,参加了为叙化武护航工作战术行动规划会议,就通信联络、安全规定、突发情况应对等相关战术细节与各方交换了意见。

    盐城舰于当地时间2019-09-18下午将运输首批叙化学武器的商船安全护送到预定海域,中国军舰执行首批叙化武海运护航任务圆满完成。

    当地时间2014年5日15时35分,丹麦运输船靠泊叙利亚拉塔基亚港,开始装载第七批化学武器。任务各方护航舰艇在事先划定的责任海域巡逻警戒。2小时30分钟之后,丹麦运输船完成装载工作驶出港口,盐城舰与俄、丹、挪等国家护航舰艇开始伴随护航。当地时间5日18时56分,在中、俄、丹、挪舰艇编队的联合护航下,负责运输叙利亚化学武器的丹麦运输船安全驶出叙利亚领海。至此,中国海军盐城舰顺利完成第七次也是最后一次叙化武海运护航任务,将返回亚丁湾。

    当地时间2019-09-18上午,中国海军盐城舰与叙化武海运护航接替兵力黄山舰在地中海会师,并在盐城舰举行任务交接仪式。根据海军命令,黄山舰接替盐城舰正式担负叙化武海运护航任务。当地时间3月9日17时15分,在中国、俄罗斯、丹麦、挪威等国军舰的联合护卫下,负责运输叙化武的挪威运输船安全驶出叙利亚领海。至此,中国海军黄山舰顺利完成第八批叙化武海运护航任务,这也是黄山舰接替盐城舰之后完成的首批叙化武海运护航任务。

    当地时间2019-09-1812时30分许,中俄、丹挪舰艇编队及丹挪运输船相继进入叙领海。全舰立即进入一级战斗准备部署。在舰艇前甲板和起降平台,防化分队结合任务进程开展了定点监测、空气侦检、水质化验等科目的演练,并对部分新型侦察装备进行了实操训练。在会议室,防化医学专家王永安教授结合自身丰富的工作经验,紧贴任务实际现场组织医疗保障组开展防化药品使用培训。当地时间2019-09-1817时45分,在中、俄、丹、挪等国军舰的联合护航下,负责运输叙化武的丹、挪运输船安全驶出叙利亚领海。至此,中国海军黄山舰顺利完成第九批叙化武海运护航任务。

    6总体评价

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    054A型护卫舰是一款非常出色的护卫舰,主要理由就是优异的多用途能力。该舰不仅装备有先进的区域防空导弹和远程反舰导弹,还具有航程远、可靠性高、易于量产的优点。整体而言,054A型护卫舰的构型简练,防空/反舰/反潜配置均衡,堪称颇具水准的设计。就数量而言,054A将成为中国新一代舰队组成的骨干,其适航性与作战能力都优于过去中国海军主力的旅大级驱逐舰;服役以来,054A型积极参与远航演习、索马里反海盗等活动,为中国海军累积了可观的远洋操作经验。

    JapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe(left)attendsanewsconferencewithUSPresidentDonaldTrumponWednesdayinPalmBeach,Florida,US.[Photo/Agencies]AttheirmeetinginMar-a-Lago,Florida,onApril18,USPresidentDonaldTrumprebuffedJapanesePrimeMinisterShinzoAbe,TrumpannouncedthattheUSwonewtariffs,whichwillamounttoabout50billionyen($450million)ayearforJapandespiteAbeworkinghardtocultivateacloserelationshipwithTrump-ountermeasuresagainstUStariffs,sprotectionistpolicies,Japanhassignedorisnegotiatingmultilateraltradeagreements,which,itbelieves,,theJapaneseparliamentisworkingtowardratifyingtheComprehensiveandProgressiveAgreementforTrans-PacificPartnership,,JapanseestheTPP-11asacornerstoneonwhichitcn,too,inDecember,andthetwosidesaremaki,t,16countriesreachedaconsensustocompleteabasicframe,itwillproducethemostpopulous,diverseandenergeticfreetradeareaintheworld,,theleadersofChina,JapanandtheROKadvocatedeconomicglobalizationandfreetrade,andagr,,duringPremierLiKeqiangsvisittoJapan,BeijingandTokyoagreedtoestablishapublic-privatecounciltodiscussjoi,Japandoesnotwanttonegotiateatwo-waytrexploringcouldbackfireworldwide,sprotectionistpolicieswil,theUShasaskedJapan,aswellasitsotherallies,sdefensebudgethasalreadybeenrisingeveryyearundertheAbeadministrationendingadecadeofmilitarybudgetcuts,

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    标签: 军事 舰艇 护卫舰

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